Gola (Gabhla) Island: A Photo Blog

The Island of Gola was once a prosperous fishing village of two hundred inhabitants. Fishing was not an industry that could be operated year round.

In the off-seasons, most of the able-bodied men, girls, and children left for rural Scotland. For six months they were farmers, domestic workers, and construction workers.

In the twentieth century, people on the island began migrating to rural Scotland and never returned to the island life.

The island comes alive in the Summer. Children play in the area, families bring food for picnics and swim in the pristine waters and beaches. There are no public facilities on the island. A small store provides snacks and drinks during the busy season.

Our group, The Ireland Writing Retreat, went on a four-hour hike around the island. We had lunch with Eddie and his wife, the only inhabitants of the island.

Snack shop

Our transportation to Gola Island

An abandoned church

Many buildings are left abandoned. Most of them are still in their original condition.

Unbaptized Catholic babies cemetery

Unbaptized Catholic babies were not allowed to be buried with other Catholics. They were buried in this cemetery. People leave hand- painted colored stones in remembrance of their souls.

Hand-painted stones left behind by visitors

A white cross in the children’s cemetary

A memorial to two residents who died in 9/11

Grazing sheep

Farmers leave their goats and sheep on the island all year to graze. The blue stripe on the sheep indicates the owner. The sheep lead the life of luxury. They can eat and wander as much as they like. The farmers come to check on them when the weather permits.

Twin Cave

Tourists come on the island for the hiking adventure. A map and marked posts provide the directions. You must be careful. There have been hikers who have fallen over the cliffs.

The island of Gola in the distance

 

 

7 Things to Know About the Ireland Writing Retreat

Less really is more. It’s a tendency of beginning writers to want to prove what they’re talking about by going too far with description. I think you’ve got to keep it short, crisp and clean

Brad Thor

How long have you been writing? This is the first question we must answer on the first day of classes at the Ireland Writing Retreat. My answer “I just started one year ago”. Yes, that’s right. I am an ESL writing teacher and performed this job for forty-two years. I wrote academic papers. I never wrote for travel. Now, I want to write for travel.

How do I become a better travel writer? I attend a writer’s circle once a month, take online classes from various organizations that don’t offer feedback and want you to continue taking their courses so they can make money, and attend local workshops at featured bookstores. I felt I wasn’t geting what I needed.

How about attending writer’s workshops in other countries? Travel and writing! I have never been to Ireland and it was on my list of travels.  I was searching various writing retreats online and stumbled across the Ireland Writing Retreat. I signed up, paid my tuition, and off I went. I didn’t really know what to expect.

I would like to share my experiences with others who might be looking for writing retreats. This is only my experience. Everyone has different experiences.

Venue

The Ireland Writing Retreat is held and organized at Teac Jack.

Teac Jack is a B&B located in Gweedore in Donegal. It has a bar, restaurant, and a beautiful view out the front door.

Breakfast is served every morning from 8:00-10:00.  A full Irish breakfast includes bacon (fried ham), eggs, sausage, mushrooms, and a warm tomato. The eggs can be ordered sunny-side up, boiled, poached, scrambled, and over easy.

Orange juice, milk, apple juice, and coffee are available for drinks. There is a table that includes yogurt, cheerios, rice cereal, and oatmeal.

Bread includes wheat, white, and dark brown. Bread can be toasted in a toaster oven. There are no pancakes or waffles. Scones are not served for breakfast, but you can ask and you shall receive.

 

Disadvantages: Teac Jack is isolated. The only place to walk is to the beach. There are no other shops, bars, or restaurants nearby. I began to get cabin fever.

Activities

The program description includes the following activities.

Boat trips to the island of Gola:

There is one trip to Gola. The island was once inhabited by families. Most of the families moved away. The island is very busy in the summer with people having picnics and swimming. We are greeted by a couple who prepare lunch for us. They are an older couple. She has a job in Donegal and comes to prepare lunch on the island when there are guests. Her husband lives on the island full time. Lunch includes sandwiches, scones, cupcakes, bread, marmalade, tea, and coffee.

Leisurely walks and a tour of Glenveagh National Park and Castle:

The history of the Glenveagh castle is a tragic one. Many of the Irish farmers were forced to leave because Mr. Adair wanted to build his castle and did not wish to look at poor farmers and their animals. They were evicted from the property.  Unfortunately, it is raining. The gardens are beautiful. I can’t get many pictures of the garden because of the dark clouds and mist all around. There is a little café that serves, scones, cakes, tea, and coffee. We stop in to have tea and dry off.

 

Glenveagh Garden

Irish language and dance classes and lively, heart-warming, foot-tapping traditional music concerts:

There are no dance classes. Every Tuesday night Tech Jack hosts the residents and their friends to a Ceili (Kaylee), Irish traditional music event. I attend with some of my classmates. Two of my classmates are Irish and one of them is an avid Ceili dancer.

My new Irish friends and writers, Norma and Jo

Most of the dancers are women. They tell me they leave their husbands at home because they are boors.

The dancing starts at 8:30 and continues until 11:00. Most of these women never stop dancing. These are not young chicks. The ages are from 60-82. I am dragged out to the floor a few times. I don’t know any of the steps. I try to follow and end up stepping on a few toes. I wish I had a few lessons before attending.

Ceili dancing with the locals

There are no traditional music “concerts”. An accordion is the only instrument used. There is a performance by one dancer and a fiddler for about two minutes. A singer sings one Irish song. This is not a concert and should not be promoted as a concert. I was disappointed.

There is one leisurely walk that took us down to the beach. We picked wild raspberries. They were sweet.

A walk with Sean’s dogs

A visit to Teac Mhuiris introduces us to the life that once was in Donegal, Ireland. After the lecture, our host, Maggie, brings out bread, cakes, scones, and tea. A Gaelic teacher teaches us a few Gaelic phrases most commonly used in everyday language. Many people in Donegal speak Gaelic as their native language. The pronunciation is complicated. I am not able to get the words to come out of my mouth in an understandable way.

Afternoon tea

Living room of the traditional home

WIFI

WIFI is available in “Jack’s Bar” and the room where the classes are held.  It is not available in the hotel rooms. This is a disadvantage because we must sit in the bar with our computers to do our work. The heat in the classroom is shut off when we are not using it. The bar is noisy and there isn’t much space to work.

Classes

The writing classes take place from 10:00 am -1:00pm every day.

The information on the site includes the following information:

Hands-on teaching techniques including one-on-one, sentence-by sentence, paragraph-by-paragraph, critiques of participant’s own work completed before and during the week-long writing retreat. 

We are given an assignment and it is due within 24 hours. There is no offer of one on one in person critiques. The critiques come in the form of feedback on line. The critiques help me to take care of the basic problems. They are not profound critiques. The critiques are given by Sean Hillen the instructor/author.

Emily DeDakis, a dramaturg, presents a workshop. She has us do various writing activities including putting our ideas into various groups. She gives us an assignment to write about something that we would never tell anyone. I don’t do the assignment. She isn’t going to give any feedback and I don’t understand the purpose. Why should I tell her a secret when I don’t even know her? Laurence McKeown, a play writer. Laurence had a very interesting story about being held in prison for 17 years. He was on a hunger strike for almost seventy days. We found his story fascinating. He gave us intensive feedback on an assignment. The assignment was to write a story that included 50% dialog. It was misunderstood by all the class participants.

Laurence McKeown, a play writer tells us about being held in prison for 17 years and a hunger strike for almost seventy days. We find his story fascinating. He gives us intensive feedback on an assignment. The assignment is to write a story that included 50% dialog. It is misunderstood by all the class participants.

He corrects them in a way that makes them bleed. So much red ink!

Farewell Dinner

The agenda lists the Farewell Dinner as an “evening filled with wine snacks, and lively conversation”.  We have sandwiches that are hastily made and not tasty and lots of wine. The “lively conversation” includes a local guitarist whose voice gives me a headache. He tells us that he doesn’t write music, he just sings from memory. Another local woman tries to sing a traditional Irish song. She has a very bad cold. We have some lively music from one of the participant’s husband who plays country western music and she sings. She has a beautiful voice. The lively conversation switches to Irish politics.

Welcome Dinner

A magical mystery welcome is the title of the welcome dinner.  The owner of Caife Kitty gives a presentation on potatoes and how they can be cooked. She brings a sampling of her mashed potatoes for us to try. Sancho entertaines us with a few Irish fairy tales.

Later in the week we go to Caife Kitty for lunch.

Transportation

There is no public transportation. Cabs are available and expensive. This is a problem if you want to go to another town to go shopping or eat. The cost of transportation by cab to the airport is 25 euros.

Meals

Meals are not included. You could spend between $30-40 for food and drink per day. Breakfast is included. The menu in the bar and restaurant offers a variey of foods.  Don’t forget the fish and chips (fries).

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The Story of Two Neigborhoods: One That Existed 1,000 Years Ago and the Other One Sixty-Five Years Ago

 

No one would have ever come to the desert Southwest if it weren’t for the search of minerals. Coronado got lost seeking gold in Cibola but ended up finding it in Southern Arizona. He also found Native Americans from the Sinagua (without water) tribe living peaceably on the land. They didn’t give him the trouble that the Apaches had inflicted on the  Anglos. Arizona is rich in minerals and people came to mine. The Anglo Saxons, the white guys, were the first to come after the Native Americans to look for minerals. Gold, Silver, and Copper. Traders, cattle ranchers, farmers, and homesteaders followed. Nearly every great fortune of the West was made in mining.

I wasn’t looking for minerals or trying to find my fortune when I started out on my four-day excursion on 89A, one of the first highways constructed in Arizona. I am a modern day explorer. I travel in my minivan with an ice chest full of ice and water. I have another box with camping supplies, sleeping bag, blankets, and dried fruit. No horses, wagons, or fear of being attacked by Apaches.

Map of  Arizona historic highways

Route 66 is one of the most famous historic routes traveled by modern day explorers. Route 66 crosses the United States. It was not easy to travel anywhere out of Clarksdale for lack of cars and roads. In 1927 highway 89A was completed. I followed 89A from Congress-Yarnell-Prescott Valley-Jerome and ended in Clarkdale. Clarkdale is very close to Sedona, Cottonwood, Page Springs (known for its wineries), and Camp Verde.

Highway 89A is not for the driver who can’t keep their eyes on the road. It is steep and curvy. It has great views. There are a few places to stop and take pictures. My husband used to drive this road and I would close my eyes. My eyes are no longer closed because I am the driver. It can become nerve racking but it is worth the drive.

Clarkdale

The first mining claims in Clarkdale were made by the Irish in 1876.  William A Clark arrived in town and purchased the United Verde Copper Company in 1888 for $80,000. He bought out the Irish who had also laid claim to the land and named the town of Clarkdale after himself. Doesn’t everyone want a town named after them?

The West was wild and just about anyone whose pockets were lined with cash was free to do what they wanted. Clark was one of those prosperous guys. He started mining “chalcopyrite”, referred to as “fool’s” gold.

chalcopyrite

Chalcopyrite was mined in the town of Jerome about 40 miles from Clarkdale between 1876 and 1953. This was no easy task considering the physical labor and expense it took to bring the chalcopyrite forty miles down very steep mountains.  Clark brought in the narrow-gauge railroad which boasted 187 curves and 28 bridges in the last 14 miles of its 27-mile run, making it one of the largest copper mining operations in Arizona.

The “J” for Jerome can be seen painted on the mountain when standing in Clarkdale.  The smelting mill in Clarkdale was the major source of employment. The process of smelting was to take the oxygen from the ore and leave the metal behind. Clarkdale processed the chalcopyrite into copper from 1913-1953.

The smelter with the letter C on the mountain for Clarkdale

William Andrews Clark was a man with three great ambitions in his lifetime. One of those ambitions was to own a town that would be one of the most modern mining towns in the world. Clarkdale, a town which bore his name, would be such a town.

Mr. Clark needed a place to house his employees. Before the idea of neighborhoods, people built their houses anywhere they found land. Free style camping. Mr. Clark didn’t want this kind of haphazard living style. He wanted his workers to be close together and he wanted a design. What he really wanted was control. The concept of company housing began. Clarkdale was the first “neighborhood design” to be developed in the state of Arizona. Construction started in 1912 and continued until 1930. The town had 560 dwellings and homes, and two hotels. Before a home was built it had to be approved by Clark or his son.

Pilot House

The first house he built was the Pilot House in 1912. It was two stories tall and made of concrete. Clark didn’t like the idea at first because it was too expensive for the number of homes he wanted to build. He decides to use the building as a boarding house. Men who worked in the smelter rented out the rooms.  Workers slept in eight-hour shifts. When one worker woke up, another took his place in bed. That made space for three people to rent at the same time. There were limited opportunities for shift workers in their daily living. At this point in time, there weren’t many women around.

The divided town

The town was divided into four sections: Upper Town, Lower Town, Patio Town, and Santa Fe town.

Upper Town

Mr. Clark believed the “well housed and contented employees were an asset to the company”.

1915

2017

The Bungalow or Craftsman style homes were built for the white people.  Engineers and executives. Fifty-five of these homes were built from 1915-1917 with bricks produced in a factory in Clarkdale.  They were low cost, simple living quarters with an artistic touch to the American trying to get by with modest means.

Park in the middle of Clarkdale

The original HOA contract

In 1912 workers earned $630 a year. The rents started at $15 per month for smaller homes and $45 for larger homes. Wide boulevards, large lots, and a great assortment of home designs made up the housing. A park in the middle of the city served as a place for the “white folks” to get together and socialize. Services included power, light, water, and sewer. There was a police force, street maintenance, garbage collection, and volunteer firefighters. All residents were required to keep the premises and yards clean. Clark did not allow his employees to own the land. They were required to lease.

Lower Town

White overall guys

Lower Town was blue collar. These homes were cheaper than the homes in Upper Town. Every home was identical in design. The people living in Lower Town had very low salaries.

Lower Town homes had three sizes of Neoclassical, small single family, large single family and duplex. Small homes have a sleeping porch recessed into one corner. Large homes have a sleeping veranda under a shed roof. The yards were small and life was contained to the home. Most of the homes had fences around them for protection. The people who lived in Lower Town or the Patio Homes were not invited to mix with the Upper Town folks. Each had their own swimming pool and ball parks.

Patio Town

Patio Park was designed for immigrant Mexican laborers. There was an open courtyard between two houses. This was referred to as the patio. Mr. Clark felt that the Mexicans liked being outside. I don’t think Mr. Clark really understood the Mexicans who worked for him. Mexican culture is a very close culture and they like to be with each other and socialize. That is why they liked the patio. This neighborhood still exists and is inhabited by Mexicans to this day. Unfortunately, this area of the town is in disrepair.

Saint Cecelia Church in Patio Town

Santa Fe Town/Rio Vista

The last neighborhoods constructed were the Rio Vista and Santa Fe town. Houses sold for $1,250-$2,225 in 1912. Duplexes had front and rear facing gables and porches at each end used as sleeping quarters.

The Rio Vista “View of the River” was near the Verde River. People built their own homes and rented the land from the UVCC. Railroad workers built their homes between Lower Town and Patio Park and called it Santa Fe after the railroad company. It also had the name Twittyville, E Twitty, the train master for the UVCC.

The Mine Closes

Clarkdale had a population of 4,200 in 1917.  The population increased to 5,000 in 1920.  In 1935, Phelps Dodge Mining Corp. purchased the United Verde Copper Company for $22,800,000.00 and operated the mine until 1953. The price of copper dropped. The mines were closed. The population dropped to 500.  There was no more work and the population moved on.

 

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Tuzigoot

Clarkdale’s nearest neighborhood is more than 1,000 years old. In the twelfth century, Tuzigoot was occupied by the Sinagua tribe. Sinagua is Spanish for “without water”. The only indication of their life is a cluster of rocks representing past buildings on top of a small sandstone ridge close to the Verde River. There were 250 people living in 80 rooms. The village was abandoned sometime in the 15th century.

Tuzigoot

Tuzigoot means “cracked water”. It was built between 1100-1450 AD. The building was two stories high and had 110 rooms. The Sinagua tribe depended on rain to help grow their crops. They hunted deer, antelope, rabbits, and ducks. They used salt to make their food taste better and keep from spoiling. They made axes, knives, hammers, jewelry from shells, turquoise and red stone. They grew cotton and wove textiles.

Artifacts found with the buried

The settlement of Tuzigoot has some similarities to its neighbor Clarkdale. There were elements of different social status. Researcher found this information while digging up graves. Those with a higher status were buried with food, shells, stone jewelry, and pottery. Those who were of worker status (blue collar) were buried with only their tools.

Plaza for socializing

Clarkdale had a park in the middle of the city and Tuzigoot had a plaza. Plazas are found all over the world and are places where people get together and socialize. People who live in the US are more accustomed to parks than plazas. The Hopi plaza was a flat open area between the rooms and was the “hub” of social and ceremonial activities. The people used the plaza to eat and share the goods that they made. The people who lived in the village shared the same beliefs and religion.

A possible dish for sharing food

Mining was also a part of their lives. They began extracting argillite and copper from the mines. They used the minerals for making pots, cooking tools, and jewelry. They didn’t possess the proper tools to do much mining.

Mammoths in the Verde Valley

The Verde Valley were the Hopi lived had a cooler and damper climate.  It was able to support large animals such as mammoths 13,000 years ago. Today you will find a hotter and drier climate. The Hopi were presented with a severe climate change almost 1,000 years ago. No more glaciers and ice fields forming on the mountains in the Colorado Plateau the nearest mountain range that provided the village with the necessary water to grow their food.

Researchers don’t have one definite reason to explain the disappearance of the tribe. Some of the reasons could have been the result of being attacked by another tribe, or disease. Some researchers believe that a volcanic eruption (Sunset Crater) 60 miles away in the city of Flagstaff scared them away.

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Clarkdale Today

Just like Coronado, I didn’t find gold or silver. I found copper. Not in the ground, but in a museum. Copper from all over the world. The museum is in Clarkdale, a booming mining town that now caters to tourists and retirees. The population is now 4,200.

Drake is the curator of the Copper Museum. His love for copper is apparent in the collection of copper products displayed. He has a family background in copper. He spent a year looking for a place to display his parents collection of copper. The museum recieves donations from all over the world. Italy, France, Germany, and the Arab countries. The rooms are categorized as the kitchen area, war room, wine and beer making, and ornamental decorations.

Casings used for attack

The Goddess of wine and drunkards

The kitchen

Jugs for drinking and making beer

Jelly, bread, and torte molds

Distillery

The project for the Copper museum began in 2001. It ranks as #387 on the National Historic Register. The museum has something for everyone to feast their eyes on. They allow dogs to enter the museum. This was important for me because I was traveling with my dog.

The town of Clarkdale has buildings that are no longer in use anymore. The town gas station just closed about one year ago. There are a few bars and restaurants. The people who live in Clarkdale do their shopping in Cottonwood, less than 10 minutes by car.

Gas station in Clarkdale

The current population of  Clarkdale is made up of retirees, hospital workers, and the tourism industry. Thirty percent of the population is Hispanic and 400 are Native Americans.

Clarkdale Lodge

The Clarkdale Lodge is the only hotel in town. The rooms are a little small for the “studio” which I stayed in for four days. It was comfortable and had a good feeling of being in a place more than eighty years old. Tourists who come to visit Clarkdale are just passing through. Many of them stay in Cottonwood which is the next closest town or continue on to Sedona.

Bakery Cafe

Passing through Clarkdale requires a stop at this bakery. The bakery was named after the owners oldest daughter. The owner used to be a food blogger and chef. She and her brother own the bakery. The baked goods come fresh out of the oven everyday of the week but Sunday. They are opened from 7:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Do not pass this place up. They are closed on Tuesdays.

These two neighborhoods , Clarkdale and Tuzigoot, exist side by side. One ceased to exist 1,000 years ago and another lost its population more than sixty years ago. Both of these neigborhoods lost their livelihood. They could no longer support themselves and moved on.

Does your old neighborhood look like it did when you lived there? How has it changed? Has it changed for the better or the worst? My neigborhood has changed. Many of the people who used to live there have moved on.

 

 

 

 

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The United States Does Not Belong to the White Man

“No Statue of Liberty ever greeted our arrival in this country…we did not, in fact, come to the United States at all. The United States came to us.”
Luis Valdez

First, there was red. Then there was brown. After brown came white.  These are skin colors in the order they arrived in the state of Arizona. Red refers to the Indians/ Native Americans. Brown refers to the Mexicans.  White refers to those who came from Europe.

I live in Fountain Hills, a small town in Central Arizona. It sits in the middle of the desert. The town is boarded on the north and south by the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. A forty square mile reservation. This is where the remainder of the Yavapai tribe live. Take a wrong turn and you will end up on the reservation.

Fountain  Park

The town of Fountain Hills was bought and developed by C.V Wood of McCullah Oil. It wasn’t easy to convince people to come out and live in such a desolate place.  Houses were built, a lake was filled with recycled water, and the fourth tallest fountain in the world is in the middle of the lake. The white people began to move into the scenic town of Fountain Hills after 1970. The town now consists of “snowbirds”, people who come for the winter months and return to their home states in the summer.  The town has a total area of 18.2 miles. The current population is 24,200 people. The racial makeup of the town is 94.1% white, 1.0 black, 0.6% Native American/Yavapai, 1.8 Asian and 4.1 Hispanic.

A Turn of Events

The area around Fountain Hills, Arizona once belonged to the Yavapai tribe, the red men.

The Yavapai were a very peaceful tribe. They were frequently confused with the Apache. The Apache were the ones depicted in the movies. They were known as the warrior tribe. The Yavapai hunted and gathered over a large portion of West Central Arizona. They didn’t possess any weapons. They had been the sole occupiers of the territory since 900 AD. The Yavapai remained in their aboriginal state until 1860. They hunted mountain sheep, deer, and rabbits. All the food they collected was from the natural environment that surrounded the area. They gathered saguaro fruit, paloverde beans, mescal, prickly pear, mulberries, acorns, walnuts, and squawberries. They depended on nature to provide their food. They made their homes in the mountains.

Petroglyphs by the Yavapai (my husband took this picture)

The US military drove the Yavapai off the land in Central Arizona in March 1875. They did not allow them to return for twenty-five years. When they returned, there was nothing. Their land had been taken away from them by the US government. Many of the sacred places they used for practicing their rituals were being used by the military to protect the white people from the Indians. The Yavapai lost their religious freedom and most of them were killed by the military during the Indian wars. They had nothing to fight with. The military had guns. These guns were used to round up whole families and betray them. The military assured them they were going to have a better life if they moved. They moved and ended up worse. They were not free to live and feed their families. They were kept as prisoners on their own land. The United States took 9,238,600 acres of land from the Yavapai on May 1, 1873, without any payment or any other kind of compensation. On March 13, 1969, the Indian Claims Commission granted an award of $5,100,000.00. This comes to about .55 per acre.

Mexico Loses Its Land to the United States

The Spaniards arrived. They treated the Yavapai with great cruelty. They wanted the land for Spain. They were seeking gold and silver in the mountains sacred to the Yavapai. They wanted to convert the Yavapai to Christianity. They were arrogant and didn’t respect the spiritual beliefs of the Yavapai. The Yavapai were successful in not letting any missions be built on their territory. The Yavapai were living in the territory under Mexican rule from 1821-1848. The Yavapai referred to the Mexicans as “good white people”. They were cruel but not as cruel as the White people.

The Mexicans, the brown people, took over the land the Yavapai were forced to leave for 25 years. When the Yavapai returned, they were forced to work for the Mexicans. They didn’t pay much.

Mexico went to war with the US. The Treaty of Hidalgo was signed by both Mexico and the US. Mexicans lost their land to the whites. The size of this land was bigger than Germany and France combined. An abundance of gold was found after the treaty was signed. The Mexicans were forced to become US citizens or leave. Arizona had been part of the state of Sonora, Mexico since 1822. The population of Mexicans living in AZ was small. In 1848, the US took possession of the southern part of AZ after the Mexican/American war. The Gadsden purchase secured the Northern part of Sonora in 1853. The whites committed horrible crimes against the Mexicans. They entered the homes, murdered the men, raped their wives and daughters, set their homes on fire, and killed all the animals. Whites thought of Mexicans and the Yavapai as idolatresses and manipulated by priests. They treated them with disrespect and injustice.

The Invasion of the Anglos

While Mexico was at war with Spain, white colonists, cattlemen, adventurers, and mercenaries invaded and occupied Central Arizona. Many of the whites who came to Arizona were refugees from the defeated confederacy and wanted to escape the Republicans. They stole cattle from the Mexican ranches. They were criminals and came to a place where there were no laws in place. They were looking for land and gold. They settled on land that did not belong to them. It belonged to the Yavapai. In 1820, the Anglo Americans, the white, started entering Yavapai territory. In 1835, there were more white foreigners than native Mexicans living in Central Arizona. Mexico asked the US to seal the border and stop the white men from stealing their property.

In 1826, the white trappers showed up. On February 2 Mexico gave the territories of California, Nevada, Texas, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona to the US government. The Yavapai were now part of the United States. The US military protected the whites who were seeking gold and silver on Yavapai land. They killed any Yavapai person who was in the territory. The white men were killing the Yavapai at the same time Lincoln was signing the Emancipation Proclamation declaring the freedom of black slaves.

The white people continued to confuse the Yavapai with the Apache. They put all Indians in the category of attackers. When their land was being invaded, they were defenseless.  They were not prepared to fight. In the 1860s the Yavapai lost their lives, their freedom, their land, their future and future generations.

The whites were trappers, miners, ranchers, soldiers, and settlers. The Yavapai were not able to feed their families and began to raid livestock the whites had brought in to feed off the vegetation. This diminished the food for the Yavapai who depended on the vegetation. The extermination of the Yavapai began. Mass violence was the norm. Almost none of the whites lost their lives. The only weapons the Yavapai had were clubs, bows, and arrows. They were unable to gather, hunt, and plant to feed themselves. They were deceived by the white people. Their lives were taken away from them.

This land belonged to the Yavapai, Four Peaks (my husband took this picture)

The land was given back to them by Theodore Roosevelt in 1911. In 1940, they lost the land to Fountain Hills. The Yavapai were forced into giving their land away to the white man.

http://www.phoenixmag.com/history/the-wild-west.html

The White Man Wins

I remember watching Western Shows when I was a child. Gunsmoke, Bonanza, Rifleman, and the Big Valley. Who came out ahead? The white man. Who was portrayed as the bad guys? The brown and red men.  I would always hope that the white man won. I thought everyone else was evil and trying to kill the white man. Life changed and I found out that the white men took over the land by force. They were not the underdog. It was the Mexican and the Indian that were the underdogs.

Now we are living among all colors of men. I don’t want the white man to win anymore. I want to see the brown, red, and black win. Do the white men feel they are the underdogs now?

The United States is a country that stands for diversity. We have opened up our doors for all countries to come and find freedom, education, religion, and to speak their mind without fear of going to jail or being killed.

Things have changed within the past nine months here in the United States. Mexicans are being deported. Taken out of their homes, removed from their families, sent to jail, and then sent back to Mexico. These are people who haven’t lived in Mexico for twenty to thirty years. What crime have they committed? They ran a stop sign, didn’t pay child support, and carry fake IDs. Are these the “bad hombres”? No, they aren’t. Many of them are good husbands, sons, and fathers. Their only crime is that they haven’t become legal citizens of the US. We are going back in history. The white man wins.

The United States does not belong to the white men. It belongs to the red men and was inhabited by the brown men before the white men showed up. The United States belongs to every man who comes and wants to make a new life with his family. It doesn’t matter what color he is. We must not let the white men win again.

I am living on land that was stolen from the Yavapai and sold to a white developer who made a ton of money.

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Harrison,Williams, Oral History of the Yavapai, The University of Arizona Press, 2012 Carolina Butler

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Note: I am not a political writer. I wrote this article from my heart. I write about culture and know that most Americans are welcoming to all people. Our ancestors all came from countries for the same reasons immigrants come now. Education, jobs, war, conflicts, and freedom. Let’s give them a chance.

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Frank Lloyd Wright: Cedar Rock, Iowa

“As we live and as we are, Simplicity – with a capital “S” – is difficult to comprehend nowadays. We are no longer truly simple. We no longer live in simple terms or places. Life is a more complex struggle now. It is now valiant to be simple: a courageous thing to even want to be simple. It is a spiritual thing to comprehend what simplicity means.”
Frank Lloyd Wright, The Natural House

I look around my house and wonder if I am living in Simplicity. Are there enough windows to let in the natural light? Are plants able to survive naturally in my house growing straight from the soil? Is there too much space?

A road trip through the Central part of Iowa brought me to one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s most complete designs. Cedar Rock in Quasqueton, Iowa. The house was completely designed for the personal use of Mr. and Mrs. Walter. Mr. Walter was a native of Quasqueton. He was a very successful businessman who owned the Iowa Road Building Company for thirty-seven years. He sold the company in 1944 to his employees. He wanted to retire and enjoy life. He and his wife became very involved in the arts. They admired the work that Frank Lloyd Wright had done on his architectural designs. They asked him to design their house.

Cedar Rock

Frank Lloyd Wright was the greatest architect of the 20th century. He designed more than 1,100 buildings before he passed away at the age of 91. Wright builtis the first house in Spring Green, Wisconsin where he grew up. He named it “Taliesin”. This building had to be built three times. It was destroyed by fire twice. The first caused by a “deranged servant” and the second by an electrical problem. He didn’t have much luck with wives either. He was married three times. The first two he divorced.

Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Cedar Rock home using the Usonian design. Usonian was the concept he wanted to use for designing homes for the middle-class families. Although I don’t think that many middle-class families between the time of 1944-1955 could afford to buy a house for $120,000.00. The house my parents bought in 1956 was about $8,000.00. We were classified as middle class. The Usonian homes designed by Frank Lloyd Wright were tailor made for the individual and his family. The spaces in the house would be practical and functional. He incorporated “organic architecture”: fresh air, in-house plants, and the sunshine. There were no basements or attics for storage. If you needed to store something and not use it, then get rid of it. He would be very annoyed to walk into some modern-day houses because everything is kept whether needed or not.

No room for storage in this bedroom

The Cedar Rock house was completed in two years. The Walters made a list of the most important items they wanted to include in the house and Wright designed it their way. He chose the curtains, carpets, and picked out the accessories. The house came with furniture, appliances, and plants. The Walters brought their books and clothing. The house was move-in ready.

The natural decor was a must. These are colored rocks illuminated by the natural glow of the sun

The biggest room in the house is the “entertainment area”. This room has a grand piano, movable pillows to allow for more seating and a very small area for sitting and eating. The idea was to socialize with everyone and not to compartmentalize the people. Instead of standing in a corner you had to stand in the center. No wall flowers allowed. The entertainment area is all glass windows. The windows give you the feeling that you are outside in the garden and the woods. The view also includes the river. It’s a dinner without flies.  The skylights brighten the interior space and the windows above help release the hot air trapped near the ceiling.

Dining table

There are no air conditioners. An indoor garden has plants growing in the natural soil of the ground. Not planted in pots.

Plants growing straight from the floor

There is a separate entrance from the exit. This was to help the guests feel more comfortable. You could sneak out the door without the host noticing and you didn’t have to explain why you were leaving. The house is airtight. Our guide describes a night that had winds blowing at tornado strength and torrential rains and the house was not affected.

Cedar Rock “Entertainment Area”

Mr. Walters was a very avid boater. He had the biggest boat around at the time. He had a private boathouse designed so that he could get away without anyone knowing about it. Not even his wife. The boathouse is equipped with a bed. Maybe for longer nights.

The Getaway Boathouse

The property has a very nice walkway and trail. The walkway goes out to the river and through the trees. I arrived early for the tour and decided to walk to the house. Tours are provided by boarding a wagon that is pulled by a tractor. You can not enter the house or walk around it without a tour guide.

Garden steps

Small trail from the Information center to the house

Mr. Walters passed away in 1981 and his wife followed in 1986. They had no children. Mrs. Walters donated the home to the Iowa Conservation Commission in 1982. The money left in her account when she passed was given to the Commission for the upkeep of the house. Her wish was to let other people come in and admire the beauty of the house.

The houses now are designed to be very big. They have attics or basement in the East or Midwest. Walk-in closets are a most for most new homes and families. In a Usonian house, the kitchen was very small. The size of a “butler’s” kitchen or a walk- in pantry. The hallways were narrow and book shelves were designed to blend in with the hallway. Having all windows eliminated the problem of interior decorating. Nature was the decoration.

The bedrooms are very small and so are the beds. The windows in the bedroom open out into the garden to give the feeling of being one with nature.

Master Bedroom

The official plaque of a Frank Llyod Wright Home

My house has a lot of windows to view the desert. My plants don’t grow straight from the ground. They are in pots that need to be watered often. There is too much space. My house has three bedrooms, a loft, a medium sized kitchen, living room, and three bathrooms. Only one bedroom, one bathroom, the kitchen, and loft are used every day. Wright would not be happy with the way I live. It is not very Usonian.

 

 

7 Cultural Observations of People Living in Manhattan

Don’t have the money or time to go outside of the country for vacation? Take a trip to New York. The inhabitants of New York City come from just about every country around the world. Stand around for awhile and you will hear Spanish, Thai, Arabic, Indian, Italian, and German spoken all around you. New York also attracts visitors from all over the world.

Why is New York City so appealing?

City Parks

People living in a big city don’t have yards. Their yards are the city parks. People play,nap,jog, walk their babies, and picnic in the park. The grass is green and trees provide shade.

People learning how to juggle in Bryant Park

Playing Board Games in Bryant Park

Taking it Easy

International Restaurants

You don’t need to go to Italy to eat Italian food. You can go to “Little Italy” in Manhatten and find Italian restaurants. Some are better than others. The restaurants are smaller and usually owned by families who live locally. We found Thai, Japanese, MidEastern, Korean, Cuban, Mexican and many more.

Great food and Great prices

Kofte Kebab Ground lamb patties blended with Turkish spices and kasseri cheese on top

French Bakeries

New York has a French bakery on just about every corner. The locals eat pastries and drink coffee on their way to work, coffee breaks, and lunch hours. The pastries are very European. They have more butter and less sugar. Endless varieties of pastries, cakes, fruited pies, croissants, and fresh yogurt choices. Many of the bakeries have outside seating.

Great place to get breakfast.

Cakes and pies

Croissants

Fruited Tarts

Transportation

Many New Yorkers don’t have driver’s licenses. I had an aunt who was a writer for CBS news. She never had a driver’s license. It’s not necessary. The traffic in NYC is slow moving and there is no place to park. People are constantly honking their horns. It pained me to see fire fighters and ambulances trying to get through traffic. It’s not because people would not pull over. There is no space to move. The roads through the city are very narrow.

Public transportation is the norm for most people. Taxis, Uber, Lyft, subway, bicycle, buses, and skateboards. Subways are very crowded during rush hour. They are cheap. The cost for a one way ticket is $2.75. Weekly, monthly and yearly passes are available. The seats are comfortable. The subway is clean and people are polite. Just get out of their way. They will help you anytime you are lost. Look like a lost tourist and they will have pity on you.

People are always in a hurry.

Rush Hour

Taxis

Nightlife

New York is known for the city that “never sleeps”. People are out late at night. Theaters have shows that end around 11:45 p.m. New Yorkers eat late. The restaurants become very crowded because space is much smaller.

Time’s Square

Unfortunately, there are not as many people here as usual. Times Square was cordoned because of a severe accident.

Theaters

New Yorkers love their theaters. New shows debut in New York. Tickets can be very expensive for some of the most popular showings. The theater is accessible to those who are rich and tourists who spend the money. They know this is their only chance.

Grocery Shopping

There are no “box supermarkets” in Manhatten. Locals shop at smaller grocery stores. The stores are stocked with every ingredient for just about any kind of international recipe. There at at least thirty different kinds of cheese, dried fruits, fresh vegetables, breads,sauces, ready made salads and sandwiches. There were no carts to push through the store. The aisles are very narrow. The locals don’t buy a lot of food at one time. They have to carry it home with them.

Local grocery store

These seven cultural observations are based on a five day experience I had in New York City. Others might have different observations.

If you get a chance, check out New York City.

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An Old Friend, A New Culture: Delhi India

One of my main purposes for traveling to India is to visit a very good friend. I met Hiroko in Battle Creek, Michigan. She was a student in my ESL class. Hiroko is one of the most adventurous persons I know. We traveled to Chicago many times by train to shop and sight see. Hiroko’s husband was transferred to Delhi, India almost seven years ago. My husband became sick and we were not able to visit. Unfortunately, my husband passed away two years ago. I decided it was time to go to India and see Hiroko.

Travel by rickshaw

Rickshaws are a very useful source of transportation in India. They don’t require fuel, are easy to repair, and are cheap to maintain. The investment is attainable. Bicycle rickshaws are a very cheap way for everyone to get around. They transport food, hay, bricks, heavy boxes, and people. School children ride bicycle rickshaws to and from school instead of school buses.  Rickshaws can cram up to 8 children at one time.

Rickshaws lined up and waiting for customers

My friend, Hiroko, and I decide to climb into one after negotiating the price. There really isn’t a lot of room for negotiation as a foreigner. The price starts high and is only reduced a few rupees. We climb into the small cabin. Everything is so much smaller when you are tall and not very thin. Hiroko holds out the palm of her hand and draws a circle with her finger indicating that we want to go around the local market area. We don’t speak Hindi and the driver doesn’t speak English. The driver is in his forties and probably weighs no more than 150 lbs. The weather is warm and I can see beads of sweat running down his face and neck as he peddles through the narrow streets lined with vendors.  We hit a few potholes and bumps on the way. The padded seats don’t seem to help the impact. It is a good thing that I have a naturally padded rear end. The driver is getting tired and looks frustrated. I feel sorry for him. He can’t figure out where we want to go.  He stops every five minutes and asks the question “Where is the entrance to the market?” No one knows the answer. Fifteen minutes have passed. We are lost.

He stops, descends from the bike, and summons a man who has a very good command of English. He asks us “Where do you ladies want to go?” Hiroko tells him that we want to go to the front of the market. He relays the information to the driver and gives him directions. He seems to understand and off we go. The destination was right around the corner.

This is not a place where foreigners/tourists come. There are no museums, famous temples, shopping malls, or supermarkets. These streets belong to the people and their stalls that sell fruit, vegetables, food cooked in front of you, and clothing. These people are hard working and want to you to purchase their items.

Fruit and vegetable stall

Everyday Life

We stop at a samosa stall. A man and his young son of about 12 years old welcome us into his stall. His son greets us with a “hello” and shyly smiles. We sit down on two white plastic buckets. He serves us each a  deep fried samosa filled with potatoes. I ignore all of the advice given to me about not eating street food. It is just too tempting.  We dip our samosas into a green chile salsa. I tell him that these are the best samosas. He smiles. We pay for our purchase and thank him. I hope we made him happy.

Man and his young son at the samosa stall

As we are walking down the street I notice this woman standing in the heat holding an iron.  She stands on her feet for about 8-9 hours a day. She irons clothing that the people in the neighborhood bring to her. The iron weighs about four pounds and is very hot.

The ironing lady

We stop at another stall. A man is making sugar cane juice. He is older, maybe in his late 60s. We watch the sugarcane stalks go through the grinder as the juice comes out of the other end of the machine. He smiles and I urge my friend to stop. We buy some juice and drink it. It is very sweet. I only hope that today’s food doesn’t come back to haunt me tonight in my sleep.

Sugar cane juice stand

We decide to take a ride on a tuk-tuk to the local supermarket.

Tuk-tuk

Supermarkets are not as popular with the common people as the local stalls. Supermarkets are expensive and the vegetables are not as fresh. Not everyone is allowed in the supermarket. Many of the locals are kept out. Our bags are checked at security. Men and women are lead in separate directions.  The women enter a small enclosure and the curtains are drawn. The security guard who is a woman proceeds to slide her wand all around me. I pick up my backpack and proceed into the supermarket. It is about one-third of the size of our monster supermarkets.

There are no “street” people, fixed prices, and not many customers. I wander through the store and find Kellogg products, Heinz tomato sauce, and Nestle instant and condensed milk. The prices are about triple the prices at the stall. Hiroko prefers to buy her vegetables at the local stall because of the freshness. We decide to invest in three small boxes of mango juice. We are checked out by not one cashier, but three cashiers. Not a single woman is working in the store.

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Foreigners are not allowed to drive in India. They must employ “drivers”. Hiroko and her husband both have drivers who take them where they need to go. Hiroko’s husband uses his driver to go back and forth to work every morning. Hiroko keeps her driver very busy. She is always on the run. Vinod is our driver. He greets us with “Namaste” as we exit the apartment complex. We climb into the car and Hiroko begins giving directions. Vinod has a very limited command of English and Hiroko speaks Japanese. He has been her driver for almost 6 years. They have their way of working out the language differences. We are on our way to the center of Delhi.

The traffic moves very slowly. There are almost no working traffic lights nor stop signs. People drive defensively honking their horns and almost never using their turn signals. Vinod is a very careful driver. He has a knack for squeezing in front of others without hitting them. The traffic makes me nervous. I decide to focus on the people around me. We aren’t going anywhere. Women with babies and small children sit on the back of motorcycles driven by their spouses or other male members of the family. Most of the time women sit sideways. Some are wearing helmets, but the majority are not. Women don’t drive in Delhi. Vinod told us he doesn’t let his wife drive. I can understand. I wouldn’t want to drive here either. It reminds me of driving bumper cars at the state fair.

Six to eight elementary school girls wearing their green plaid uniforms and green sweaters pile into a bicycle rickshaw. The girls are giggling and catch a glimpse of us in the car. They start waving frantically and yelling “hello, hello”. I roll down the window and they all shout “What’s your name? What’s your name?” I yell above the noise of the cars and busses, “Carol”. I make the mistake of asking “What’s your name?” because 8 different names come flying in my direction. I didn’t catch a single one. Our car finally inches up and before I can take a picture of the girls a van pulls up and blocks my view. The girls are gone.

The van passes us and behind him is another rickshaw. This one has seven males in their twenties. They catch my eye and began to send me hand signals. One asks me if I want to meet his friend. I throw up my left hand and point to my wedding ring. They laugh and wave goodbye. Friendly banter in the middle of traffic going nowhere anytime soon.

First Tourist Stop

Forty-five minutes later we arrive at Qutb Minor, a 73 m-high tower of victory, built in 1193 by Qutb-ud-din Aibak. This is one of the must-see monuments in Delhi. Foreigners/tourists are charged three times the price as locals. Hiroko is considered a local. She carries a document stating that she lives in Delhi. We don’t have a guide. Other foreigners have formed a line behind us. Many of them accompanied by a private guide they have hired to shuttle them around all day. Guides are a very helpful for tourists in India. They provide valuable historical information, recommend restaurants, and protection when necessary.

Groups of Indian elementary school children dressed in their gray pants and navy blue vests are trying their best to stand in line.   Their teachers are telling them in English, “Line up here”. They proceed into the park in single line formation following their teachers. Elementary schools in India have both coeducational and segregated classes. Some of them pass by and sneak a smile and a few giggles when they see the foreigners watching them and taking their pictures. I wonder what they think about us.

School children waiting to enter the Qutb monument park

We take pictures, read the guidebook, and walk around. Every time I turn a corner, there is a young Indian couple stealing kisses and embracing. Showing signs of affection in public is not acceptable. Young people take advantage of theaters, museums, and national monuments to show their feelings for each other.

Qutb Minar

Qutb Minar

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We stop at the market on the way home to pick up some things for dinner. The market has stalls of vegetables, dry goods, pharmaceuticals, dried fruits, nuts, and clothing. Hiroko has her preferred vegetable stall. We quickly pass by all of the others who are trying to hawk their products. Hiroko walks into her vegetable stall and everyone greets her with “Namaste”. She goes about picking her vegetables. She is being closely followed by one of the workers who is holding a small plastic container with small holes.

Hiroko chooses a vegetable and he places it in the container. He tries to get her to buy mangoes, she says no. There are gooseberries, grapes, cauliflower, ginger, bananas, and cabbage. He hands the plastic container of vegetables to another man who weighs it. The tally is done by hand with pencil and paper. The next man gives Hiroko the total. She haggles for a little less and is successful. She pays with her debit card.  We leave the bag with them and proceed to the next stall.

There are no women shopping nor working in the stalls. The men lie around, drink tea, and talk to each other. I walk through the stalls observing the colorful clothing and the various choices of nuts and dried fruits. Peanuts, walnuts, almonds, dates, apricots, and apples.

Vegetable shop

Vegetable stall

This was the first day of my visit to Delhi, India. Please read Part 2.

 

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